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Thursday, January 20, 2011

Sample Notes Of Operating System by Prof N.B.Venkateswrlu

Operating System Services Explanation comparison between William Stallings book to Prof. N.B.Venkateswrlu Sir.
          If any mistake please forgive me..
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          My sir Prof N.B.Venkateswrlu sir is writing  a book on Operating system.He  has give a hard copy of that..& I read that and i want publish small topic about 64-bit OS which i have read on the book.
Buzz Words Of 64-bit Operating System:

64-bit Computing:
         64-bit system can process twice as many instructions per second as comparable to32-bit system. The counter pat is also more than that of 32-bit systems. The main difference between these two is the amount of memory that they support.
         32-bit systems have only 32bits of data to work that is they can only address up to 4GB of RAM. But a 64-bit system can theoretically address 16 ExaBytes of RAM. Most 64-bit system physical RAM exists in between 8 GB to 256 TB.
64-bit Addressing:
        A 64-bit processor, with 64-bit registers and 64-bit integer path, has ability to address more memory than 32-bit processor. A 32-bit processor provides the flat addressing of 2 power of 32 32-bit bytes or about 4GB of memory but where as a 64-bit processor provides the flat addressing of 2 power of 64 64-bit bytes or about 18EB of memory.
64-bit Integer Arithmetic:
       In a 64-bit CPU, integer arithmetic provides greater performance & precision. Main advantage with 64-bit integer arithmetic is increases the performance of larger data types.
64-bit Operating System:
      64-bit addressing & arithmetic capabilities provide more system resources to our applications. There is not a significant performance penalty for increased scalability, because 64-bit OS are using the native capabilities of the 64-bit CPU.
64-bit Applications:
       64-bit applications take advantages of the 64-bit capabilities of tee CPU and OS. Depends up on the applications these may include the 64-bit addressing and arithmetic capabilities of the CPU as well as increases the system resources.
The Benefits Of The 64-bit Computing:
Increased Scalability:
      Some applications do not fit into 32-bit computing model. Ex: limitations on the file size in a 32-bit environment may require database system to use multiple files to represent a single file. Applications requiring large number of files or number of users will benefits from 64-bit computing.

Increased Performance:
         Some applications may need large files, large memory, high precision arithmetic, and/or arithmetic accommodations for 32-bit limitations. Applications needs more code or data in memory will benefits from decreased swapping with 64-bit bit computing. Reduced swapping can make database inquires as much as 100 times faster.
          But a 64-bit desktop computer won’t make our word-processing program run faster, however a 64-bit chip has the power to dramatically improve the performance of our more demanding applications such as Audi to video  encoding, complex engineering program like CAD and some games.

Advantages of 64-bit Windows:
           Compared to the 4GB of physical memory that 32-bit Windows supports, a 64-bit OS can support up to 16 GB of memory. The increased memory has several benefits. Larger amount of RAM means we can run more applications in physical memory and avoid paging to slower hard disks. We can also support larger number of users & performance.
        Developers of games will be able to take advantage of 64-bit performance boost by reducing the time spent in digitally rendering 3-D models. From the aerospace engineers to the automobile manufacturers, the CAD/CAM engineers to 3-D animations, 64 bit architect will be beneficial in improving calculations speed & providing a large memory set for mission-critical applications.
Comparison of 32-bit & 64-bit Architecture:
Architectural Component
64-bit Windows 2000
32-bit Windows 2000
Virtual memory
16 TB
4 GB
Paging file size
512 TB
16 TB
Hyper Space
8 GB
4 MB
Paged pool
28 GB
470 MB
Non-paged pool
128 GB
256 MB
System cache
1 TB
1 GB
System PTE
128 GB
660 MB